Micah Xavier Johnson, 25, told a police negotiator he was upset at white people and wanted to kill them, especially white officers, before he was killed by a robot-delivered bomb.
Dallas police chief David Brown described the shootings, which killed five officersand injured seven officers and wounded two civilians, as a "well-thought-out evil tragedy".
Along with the weapons found at the home, police found a journal of combat tactics and this is being analysed by detectives.
Johnson had served in the Army Reserve for six years – and completed a tour of duty in Afghanistan between November 2013 and July 2014. A list of people who knew him told the police during interrogations that likes being alone.
Before he died, the 25-year-old said he was acting alone and was not affiliated with any terror group.
According to a police report, Johnson had no criminal record.
Dallas Mayor Mike Rawlings said police believe that Johnson was the lone shooter, adding that he had “written manifestos on how to shoot, move, shoot, move”.
“He did that…he did his damage.
“We believe now that the city is safe and that the suspect is dead and we can move onto healing.”
Texas Governor Greg Abbott said, however, that it was important to determine whether there were any co-conspirators in the shooting.
He described the past day as “a veritable tale of two cities – the heroism of police officers but, at the same time, it has been a tale of cowardice of an assassin”.
Among Johnson’s Facebook likes were the African American Defence League and the New Black Panther Party.
The African American Defence League had posted on Facebook the day before the shootings which described police as “pigs” and called for supporters to “rally the troops…visit Louisiana and hold a barbecue”.
The message was attributed to Dr Mauricelm-Lei Millere, one of the organisation’s leaders.
Leaders of the New Black Panther Party have previously voiced anti-white and anti-Jewish opinions, blaming Jews for 9/11 and the slave trade, according to the Southern Poverty Law Centre.
The shootings took place at a protest against the recent fatal shootings of two black men by police.
Police say officers have also been targeted in Tennessee, Georgia and Missouri, with the attack in Tennessee occurring hours before the one in Dallas.
The Tennessee Bureau of Investigation says that the attacker told authorities he was frustrated by the killings of black men in Louisiana and Minnesota.
In Georgia, authorities said a man had called 911 reporting a break-in and had then ambushed the responding officer, sparking a shoot-out in which the officer and suspect were injured but both expected to survive.
Officers who died in the shootings.
No motive was revealed for the attacks in Georgia and Missouri, which police described as ambushes.
In another attack early on Friday local time, a motorist fired at a police car, shooting the officer three times.
Four officers were injured in the attacks, with the officer in St Louis still in hospital in a critical but stable condition.
Antonio Taylor has been charged with the three felonies related to the incident and he is expected to appear in court on Monday.