US Equal Rights Amendment: Everything you need to know

The United States House of Representatives is expected to vote this week on whether to remove the ratification deadline for the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), which would grant equal rights to all US citizens regardless of sex.

Congress imposed a deadline when it first proposed the amendment in 1972. But the deadline expired nearly four decades ago after only 35 states had agreed to the amendment. Constitutional amendments must be ratified by at least 38 states.

Democrats in the House now plan to approve a resolution that would remove the deadline altogether. The Republican-led US Senate would have to agree, which is unlikely.

The proposed amendment gained new life when Virginia became the 38th state to ratify the amendment on January 27 after Democrats took control of the state legislature for the first time in 27 years.

As the ERA comes into the national spotlight again, here is a look at what it is and why some say it is so important.

What is the Equal Rights Amendment?

Advocates for gender equality in the US have been pushing for an amendment to the US Constitution that would provide for equal rights between men and women for nearly a century.

The ERA was first proposed in 1923 by Alice Paul, leader of the National Woman’s Party, soon after ratification of the 19th Amendment which gave women – though, in reality, only white women at the time – the right to vote in the US.

It was not until 1972 that Congress approved an updated wording of the proposed amendment by votes of more than two-thirds majorities in both the House and Senate.

The ERA reads: “Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State on account of sex”, and Congress shall have the power to enforce that right.

What would the ERA do?

The ERA would provide a fundamental legal remedy against gender discrimination for both women and men, according to the Alice Paul Institute, a non-profit group dedicated to ratifying the ERA.

The ERA would affect judicial handling of a wide range of claims including matters of workplace discrimination, gender identity, sexual harassment, domestic abuse and reproductive rights.

US courts have dealt inconsistently of sex discrimination and, under the ERA, any laws containing the different treatment of men and women would be subject to strict scrutiny.

The amendment would further serve as a pre-emptive warning to any legislators seeking to write new laws that would treat men and women unequally.

Why are some people against it?

Opposition to the ERA has come from conservatives who argue it would spawn a wide range of unintended lawsuits that would degrade women’s status.

The late conservative activist Phyllis Schlafly campaigned against the ERA in the 1970s, arguing it would deprive women of their special protections and privileges.

Opponents argue the ERA would hurt families and strip women of certain privileges, such as separate bathrooms and Social Security benefits for widows, among others. Attention in recent years has turned specifically to abortion, with opponents of the ERA warning that the amendment is “abortion in disguise”.

Proponents argue that reproductive rights must be part of the conversation, but according to the Alice Paul Institute, “the ERA does not add new laws to the US Constitution, it only guarantees the rights currently within it. Issues like abortion, same-sex marriage, unisex bathrooms, and the female draft exist separately from the ERA and would not become law upon the ERA’s passage.”

Public opinion surveys have suggested broad public support for the ERA. A 2016 survey commissioned by the ERA Coalition, a pro-ERA advocacy group, found a 94 percent majority support a constitutional guarantee of equal rights for men and women.

Why is Congress talking about eliminating the deadline?

When Congress proposed the ERA, it set a 1979 deadline for ratification by the states. Congress extended the deadline to 1982.

But after Virginia’s legislature gained a Democratic-majority, the debate over the ERA re-emerged.

Attorneys general for Virginia, Illinois and Nevada – the last three states to ratify the ERA – filed a lawsuit in federal court seeking to force judicial recognition of the amendment.

The Trump administration’s Department of Justice issued a legal memo on January 6 arguing the ERA could not be ratified because of the expired deadline. Others have highlighted that five states – Idaho, Kentucky, Nebraska, Tennessee and South Dakota – have voted to revoke their ratifications of the ERA.

The case is likely to go to the US Supreme Court.

Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg, a staunch supporter of the ERA, suggested that it may be time to restart the ERA debate altogether.

“I’d like to start it over,” she said at an event at Georgetown University Law, US media reported.

Ginsberg had already said she hopes the ERA “will be put back in the political hopper, starting over again, collecting the necessary number of states to ratify it”.

What has to happen for an amendment to become part of the US Constitution?

The US Constitution provides that an amendment may be proposed by Congress with a two-thirds vote in both chambers, or by a constitutional convention convened by two-thirds of the state legislatures.

A proposed amendment becomes part of the Constitution as soon as it is ratified by two-thirds of the states, or 38 of 50.

The National Archivist is then required to certify an amendment has been ratified. The archivist declined to do so following Virginia’s ratification of the ERA because of the Justice Department’s legal opinion citing the expired deadline.

Facebook apologizes for workplace discrimination against blacks

Facebook apologised on Friday after black employees anonymously shared feelings of workplace bias in an online post.

The post shared at Medium by a “FB Blind” profile laid out perceived slights by managers, white colleagues, and the human resources department.

“No one at Facebook, or anywhere, should have to put up with this behaviour,” corporate communications vice president Bertie Thomson said in response to an AFP query.

“We are sorry. It goes against everything that we stand for as a company. We’re listening and working hard to do better.”

Incidents described in the Medium post included being targeted for negative performance reviews or snide comments.

“On the inside, we are sad. Angry. Oppressed. Depressed,” the post read.

“And treated every day through the micro and macro aggressions as if we do not belong here.”

The anonymous post maintained that the atmosphere at Facebook has worsened in the past year when it came to non-white workers being recognised, empowered and treated equitably.

“The problem is not just with black employees of different genders,” the post read.

“We are remaining anonymous because Facebook creates a hostile culture where anyone that is non-white is made to feel fear for their job and their safety to report any bad behaviours.”

This ‘racist’ cartoon of Serena Williams and Naomi Osaka will make you laugh and cry

 

Naomi Osaka became a world champion after trashing Serena Williams in their 2018 U.S. Open (Women’s Singles) final, but the landmark achievement on that “memorable day (06.09.2018)” has been a subject of prolonged debate.

In Japan, and in fact, to Japanese citizens all over the world, Naomi is immortal. That unexpected status quo-altering triumph made the young tennis superstar one of Japan’s most popular figures online. Her recent trip to the Asian country, however, generated more buzz because netizens won’t just stop discussing the champ’s real identity.

But with serious discussions about Naomi’s identity spreading on social media, an Australian newspaper on Wednesday redirected concerns by republishing a controversial cartoon–good enough to be considered racist–with direct and unbiased statements.

The image, a thought-provoking caricature of Serena during the U.S. Open women’s singles final, was initially published by the Herald Sun newspaper Monday.

Without questioning what impact the Herald Sun newspaper intended to create with the “body-shaming” cartoon, social media users have reacted in different ways, calling the cartoonist and news outlet some unprintable names for daring to place it on their front page. The intervening Australian newspaper summarized the social media tantrums as “politically correct” accusations, adding that the drawing was “racist and sexist.”

Mark Knight, a cartoonist with the Melbourne-based newspaper house, portrayed an outraged Serena “swearing and cursing” at the U.S. Open for reasons far from low-performance. Yes, her actions against the umpire attracted widespread condemnation, and the world has forgiven but will not forget–notwithstanding her “justified” provocations.

If only the Australian hadn’t started this new wave of activism against racism and for equality, freedom, human rights and other “politically correct” ideas.

“WELCOME TO PC WORLD,” the newspaper wrote on its front-page headline on Wednesday. “If the self-appointed censors of Mark Knight get their way on his Serena Williams cartoon, our new politically correct life will be very dull indeed.”

The cover page added other caricatures of some  Australian and foreign political leaders drawn by the cartoonist.

Knight noted on Wednesday that his Twitter account was suspended “to protect his friends and family.”

The famous cartoonist attracted over 23,000 critical comments on his social media page before the shutdown. It was more so because Knight portrayed Naomi as a petite feminine with jet-blonde straight hair although, in real life, she has a dark, curly hair with blonde streaks and is shorter than Serena, who impulsively jumped up and down atop her broken racket amid controversies during the game–as Knight would have us believe. An unnecessary exaggeration.

Serena’s fat lips and curvy appearance took the “y” out of sexy.

Knight described people’s reaction with “the world has gone crazy.”

In his words, as published by News Corp. Australia on Wednesday, “I drew this cartoon Sunday night after seeing the U.S. Open final, and seeing the world’s best tennis player have a tantrum and thought that was interesting…The cartoon about Serena is about her poor behavior on the day, not about race.”

It’ll be remembered that Serena went berserk while losing against the Haitian-Japanese Naomi Osaka.

Serena smashed her racket on the floor and was seen yelling at the umpire who she also called a “thief” and a “liar”. Carlos Ramos gave the 23-time Grand Slam champion a total of three-code violations, which cost her a point penalty at the sporting event and, eventually, a game penalty. She was fined $17,000 for the three code violations.

In her post-match news conference, Serena said: “I’m here fighting for women’s rights and women’s equality…”